The Bites of poisonous snakes, symptoms and treatment
When the snake bites the world’s leading pathological factor is intoxication, and sometimes role plays and sensitization to poison.
Symptoms . Typical symptoms of intoxication: nausea, vomiting, violet, crimson spots of various sizes and swelling at the bite site, swollen lymph nodes, weakness, increased sweating, pain in the bite location, the nearby muscles by gradually strengthening them, hemorrhagic skin rash near the bite, like syndrome, including emotional shock, epistaxis. gangrene of the skin at the bite site, etc. these symptoms can accede to an allergic reaction of varying severity. Clinical manifestations of snake venom poisoning is extremely diverse and depend on the number neirolepticeski, proteolytic and cytolytic agents, coagulants, enzymes in the venom.
Fundamentally we can distinguish two types of toxicity: neurotoxic and hemorrhagic. For the first type is characterized by a sharp pain in the area of the bite with subsequent development of myalgia, General weakness and fatigue, headache, dysphagia; for the second, burning pain at the bite location, with a strong swelling around it and the appearance of hemorrhages.
Treatment . Child, bitten by a snake (and adult!), should ensure complete rest with minimal muscular activity. The limb attached to the most comfortable position. Above the bite impose a tourniquet (not too tight, so that in place of clamping felt a weak pulse). Every 20 minutes loosen the tourniquet for 1 min. Duration of tourniquet 4-12 h.
The child delivered in a hospital or medical facility within 1 h after the bite, make a linear incision of the skin in its entire depth passing through the bite marks. Of the resulting wound the blood and lymph sucking mouth (in the absence of disturbances of the mucous) for 20-30 minutes (despite the danger of infection of the wound flora of the oral cavity, this procedure is expedient to do so, as this removes a significant amount of venom from the tissues). Then bringing together the edges of the wound, cover it with a cloth, moistened with sterile saline solution. It is not recommended to treat the wound with potassium permanganate because this substance damages the tissue.
The main treatment is specific therapy polyvalent anti-typhoid serum. The sooner she started, the more effective. For the purpose of prevention of infection antibiotics are prescribed and taken preventive measures against tetanus and gas gangrene. In follow-up if necessary carry out the transfusion of blood, plasma and saline solutions.
To date there is no consensus regarding the appropriateness of the use of corticosteroid hormones. Use them as strong giposencibilization means justified, but they should not replace the specific treatment anti-typhoid serum.
When respiratory depression is carried out artificial lung ventilation using respirators. In the treatment of snake bites is not recommended to use morphine and its derivatives, antihistamines and intravenous calcium gluconate because of the risk of seizures, and hemolysis.
ATTENTION: If you or your child was bitten by a snake, immediately seek medical help! Do not self-medicate!