Snake – concise medical encyclopedia
SNAKES – animals reptiles. The body length of the snakes varies depending on species from 8 cm to 10-11 m (Boas). Dry skin covered with keratinized arranged tile-shaped scales or plates in the form of half rings; periodically reset. Eyes covered with transparent eyelids fused. Teeth thin, sharp, slightly curved back. The poisonous C on the front edge of the upper jaw are poisonous teeth, having an internal channel or groove to drain the poison. At the base of the channel or groove opens the excretory duct of the venom gland. In the quiescent state Z. poisonous teeth bent under the jaw, when they bite they are with the force and stuck into the victim’s body. Striking external signs, in whom it is possible to distinguish poisonous from non-poisonous C, no. Z. are the prey; swallow prey alive or kill pre-strangle or poison. Most C conducts a ground way of life, often in dense vegetation or among stones. They crawl into the gardens and dwellings of man. Marine C are exclusively aquatic lifestyle.
Approx. 2500 known species Z. from them to humans is poisonous to more than 200. From various types of C found in the USSR, poisonous 10. In the Northern and Central districts of the USSR is the common adder, in the steppe zone of the South of the European part of the USSR, Caucasus, Kazakhstan and Middle Asia steppe Viper, in the West of Caucasus and Transcaucasia Caucasus Viper, in the West Caucasus – nosed Viper, in the South of Armenia and Nakhichevan ASSR – banded adder. Z. poisonous bites which are especially dangerous, eg, Viper, live in Transcaucasia and Central Asia, Viper and spectacled snake (Cobra) – only in Central Asia. Some of the other snakes dangerous Eastern Copperhead living in the far East, common Copperhead, common in Azerbaijan, on the Lower Volga, in Kazakhstan, Middle Asia and South Siberia (the representatives of lmcs. alkoholowych) and the far Eastern tiger snake (SEM. ugowych). Certain types of snakes are represented in the color inset, article 432, Fig. 46-61.
The poison of snakes is the basis for the preparation of a number of medicines (see snake venom). To receive special poison snake nurseries.
When the bite is poisonous C on the skin are two small red dots – places of penetration of fangs. The poison of Viper has on the body of the affected local irritant, inflammatory and total hemotoksicheskie and cytotoxic effect. In the area of the bite appear edema and cyanosis tissues are bleeding. Observed weakness, dizziness, nausea, decreased blood pressure, small and frequent pulse; these phenomena reach their maximum development through 8-36 h after the bite. Poison from Z. SEM. coral snakes (in the USSR only Central Asian spectacle snake, or Cobra) has predominantly neurotoxic action – block neuromuscular and interneuronal synapses, inhibiting cortical, subcortical and stem centers t. researcher At the victim there is severe pain at the bite location that spread to the entire affected extremity and other parts of the body, occurs and progresses General muscle weakness, disturbed coordination of movements. The most formidable feature is the slowing of breathing until it stops. Perhaps the development of cardiovascular failure and pulmonary edema (see Lungs).
First aid and treatment. Immediately after the bite is recommended to Z. the contents vigorously suck the wound and spit released liquid (snake venom, got on intact mucous membranes of the mouth, poisoning does not cause). Continue suctioning should be 15-20 min. Then the wound should be treated with iodine, brilliant green or alcohol. You should not make incisions at the bite site, apply a tourniquet, give inside spirits to put into the wound with potassium permanganate or other oxidizing agents, cauterizing the bite.
Immobilizing the affected limb by splints made of improvised means. If possible, you should ensure peace. Useful abundant hot drink (tea, coffee, broth). The victim must quickly deliver it in a medical. institution and to introduce anti-typhoid serum.
Developed immune monovalent and polyvalent antitoxic serum – antihorse, antifa, anticore, etc. the Use of antitoxic sera may be complicated by allergic reactions – urticaria, Quincke’s edema (see Quincke edema), anaphylactic shock (see Anaphylaxis). Therefore, serotherapy should be carried out according to the indications in the amounts outlined in the instructions for use of serum. Effective as hormone therapy (cortisone 40-60 mg, prednisolone 20-30 mg per day). At the phenomena of cardiovascular insufficiency used kordiamin, adrenaline, ephedrine (subcutaneously). Assign vitamins C, P, K, B12, calcium gluconate. In case of severe pain resort to circular novocaine blockade, local shows cold. In all cases, we recommend the introduction of tetanus toxoid.
Protection from snake bites. When you are in areas inhabited by Z. you are required to wear high leather shoes. If necessary, spending the night in places inhabited by Z. you should carefully inspect the area designated for Parking. Institutions (summer camp, etc.) shall not be located in places where snakes. Among the population should conduct explanatory work.